We show that, in a restricted range, the divisor function of integers in residue classes modulo a prime follows a Gaussian distribution, and a similar result for Hecke eigenvalues of classical holomorphic cusp forms. Furthermore, we obtain the joint distribution of these arithmetic functions in two related residue classes. These results follow from asymptotic evaluations of the relevant moments, and depend crucially on results on the independence of monodromy groups related to products of Kloosterman sums.
Cite this article
Étienne Fouvry, Satadal Ganguly, Emmanuel Kowalski, Philippe Michel, Gaussian distribution for the divisor function and Hecke eigenvalues in arithmetic progressions. Comment. Math. Helv. 89 (2014), no. 4, pp. 979–1014DOI 10.4171/CMH/342