For a positive integer , we let and denote the Euler function and the Carmichael function, respectively. We define as the ratio and study various arithmetic properties of .
Cite this article
Igor E. Shparlinski, William D Banks, Florian Luca, Arithmetic properties of <em>φ(n)/λ(n)</em> and the structure of the multiplicative group modulo <em>n</em>. Comment. Math. Helv. 81 (2006), no. 1, pp. 1–22DOI 10.4171/CMH/40