# Scale-invariant groups

### Volodymyr V. Nekrashevych

Texas A&M University, College Station, United States### Gábor Pete

University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

## Abstract

Motivated by the renormalization method in statistical physics, Itai Benjamini defined a finitely generated infinite group $G$ to be scale-invariant if there is a nested sequence of finite index subgroups $G_{n}$ that are all isomorphic to $G$ and whose intersection is a finite group. He conjectured that every scale-invariant group has polynomial growth, hence is virtually nilpotent. We disprove his conjecture by showing that the following groups (mostly finite-state self-similar groups) are scale-invariant: the lamplighter groups $F≀Z$, where $F$ is any finite Abelian group; the solvable Baumslag–Solitar groups $BS(1,m)$; the affine groups $A$ ⋉ $Z_{d}$, for any $A≤GL(Z,d)$. However, the conjecture remains open with some natural stronger notions of scale-invariance for groups and transitive graphs. We construct scale-invariant tilings of certain Cayley graphs of the discrete Heisenberg group, whose existence is not immediate just from the scale-invariance of the group. We also note that torsion-free non-elementary hyperbolic groups are not scale-invariant.

## Cite this article

Volodymyr V. Nekrashevych, Gábor Pete, Scale-invariant groups. Groups Geom. Dyn. 5 (2011), no. 1, pp. 139–167

DOI 10.4171/GGD/119