# Towards a classification of entanglements of Galois representations attached to elliptic curves

### Harris B. Daniels

Amherst College, USA### Alvaro Lozano-Robledo

University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA### Jackson S. Morrow

Université de Montréal, Canada

## Abstract

Let $E/\mathbb{Q}$ be an elliptic curve, let $\overline{\mathbb{Q}}$ be a fixed algebraic closure of $\mathbb{Q}$, and let $G_{\mathbb{Q}}=\text{Gal}(\overline{\mathbb{Q}}/\mathbb{Q})$ be the absolute Galois group of $\mathbb{Q}$. The action of $G_{\mathbb{Q}}$ on the adelic Tate module of $E$ induces the adelic Galois representation $\rho_E\colon G_{\mathbb{Q}} \to \text{GL}(2,\widehat{\mathbb{Z}}).$

The goal of this paper is to explain how the image of $\rho_E$ can be smaller than expected. To this end, we offer a group theoretic categorization of different ways in which an entanglement between division fields can be explained and prove several results on elliptic curves (and more generally, principally polarized abelian varieties) over $\mathbb{Q}$ where the entanglement occurs over an abelian extension.

## Cite this article

Harris B. Daniels, Alvaro Lozano-Robledo, Jackson S. Morrow, Towards a classification of entanglements of Galois representations attached to elliptic curves. Rev. Mat. Iberoam. 39 (2023), no. 3, pp. 803–844

DOI 10.4171/RMI/1424