JournalsrmiVol. 32, No. 1pp. 57–77

Isotropic pp-harmonic systems in 2D Jacobian estimates and univalent solutions

  • Tadeusz Iwaniec

    Syracuse University, USA
  • Aleksis Koski

    University of Helsinki, Finland
  • Jani Onninen

    Syracuse University, USA
Isotropic $p$-harmonic systems in 2D Jacobian estimates and univalent solutions cover

A subscription is required to access this article.

Abstract

The core result of this paper is an inequality (rather tricky) for the Jacobian determinant of solutions of nonlinear elliptic systems in the plane. The model case is the isotropic (rotationally invariant) p\,p\,-harmonic system

divDhp2Dh=0,h=(u,v)W1,p(Ω,R2),1<p<,\mathrm{div} \|Dh|^{p-2} Dh =0 ,\quad h = (u, v) \in \mathcal W^{1,p}(\Omega, \mathbb R^2), 1 < p < \infty,

as opposed to a pair of scalar pp-harmonic equations:

divup2u=0anddivvp2v=0\mathrm{div} |\nabla u|^{p-2} \nabla u =0 \quad \mathrm{and} \quad \mathrm{div} |\nabla v|^{p-2} \nabla v=0

Rotational invariance of the systems in question makes them meaningful, both physically and geometrically. An issue is to overcome the nonlinear coupling between u\,\nabla u\, and v\, \nabla v \,. In the extensive literature dealing with coupled systems various differential expressions of the form Φ(u,v)\,\Phi (\nabla u\,,\nabla v )\, were subjected to thorough analysis. But the Jacobian determinant\linebreak detDh\det Dh =uxvyuyvx= u_x v_y - u_y v_x\, was never successfully incorporated into such analysis. We present here new nonlinear differential expressions of the form Φ(Dh,detDh)\Phi(|Dh|, \det Dh )\, and show they are superharmonic, which yields much needed lower bounds for detDh\, \det Dh\,. To illustrate the utility of such bounds we extend the celebrated univalence theorem of Radó–Kneser–Choquet on harmonic mappings (p=2p=2) to the solutions of the coupled pp-harmonic system.

Cite this article

Tadeusz Iwaniec, Aleksis Koski, Jani Onninen, Isotropic pp-harmonic systems in 2D Jacobian estimates and univalent solutions. Rev. Mat. Iberoam. 32 (2016), no. 1, pp. 57–77

DOI 10.4171/RMI/881