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The advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have already led to new technological solutions in the water industry. This continues a trend that started long time ago, but in many cases has been limited by several technical restrictions. Digitalization is also changing economic activities in many ways: workflows and forms of organization are being transformed to the emergence of new business models. This chapter describes the ICT basics that are relevant for the water industry and lays the theoretical foundations for understanding the newly developed decision support system EWave.