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This article sets the background for the panel session at the ICM on controversial issues in K-12 mathematics education. Three speciﬁc issues have been selected: Technology, skill building and the role of test and assessment. For each of these, a list of questions has been prepared. After introducing the three themes and the associated questions, this article presents the positions on these of the two panelists: Professor Anthony Ralston, from the State University of New York at Buffalo in the US, and Professor Ehud de Shalit from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel. The article ends with some personal comments from the coordinator of the panel: Professor Michèle Artigue from the University Paris 7 in France.