# Global bifurcation theory for periodic traveling interfacial gravity–capillary waves

### David M. Ambrose

Department of Mathematics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States### Walter A. Strauss

Department of Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, United States### J. Douglas Wright

Department of Mathematics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States

## Abstract

We consider the global bifurcation problem for spatially periodic traveling waves for two-dimensional gravity–capillary vortex sheets. The two fluids have arbitrary constant, non-negative densities (not both zero), the gravity parameter can be positive, negative, or zero, and the surface tension parameter is positive. Thus, included in the parameter set are the cases of pure capillary water waves and gravity–capillary water waves. Our choice of coordinates allows for the possibility that the fluid interface is not a graph over the horizontal. We use a technical reformulation which converts the traveling wave equations into a system of the form “identity plus compact.” Rabinowitz' global bifurcation theorem is applied and the final conclusion is the existence of either a closed loop of solutions, or an unbounded set of nontrivial traveling wave solutions which contains waves which may move arbitrarily fast, become arbitrarily long, form singularities in the vorticity or curvature, or whose interfaces self-intersect.

## Cite this article

David M. Ambrose, Walter A. Strauss, J. Douglas Wright, Global bifurcation theory for periodic traveling interfacial gravity–capillary waves. Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré Anal. Non Linéaire 33 (2016), no. 4, pp. 1081–1101

DOI 10.1016/J.ANIHPC.2015.03.005