# Ax’s theorem with an additive character

### Ehud Hrushovski

University of Oxford, UK

## Abstract

Motivated by Emmanuel Kowalski’s exponential sums over definable sets in finite fields, we generalize Ax’s theorem on pseudo-finite fields to a continuous-logic setting allowing for an additive character. The role played byWeil’s Riemann hypothesis for curves over finite fields is taken by the ‘Weil bound’ on exponential sums. Subsequent model-theoretic developments, including simplicity and the Chatzidakis–Van den Dries–Macintyre definable measures, also generalize.

Analytically, we have the following consequence: consider the algebra of functions $\mathbb{F}^n_p \to \mathbb{C}$ obtained from the additive characters and the characteristic functions of subvarieties by pre- or postcomposing with polynomials, applying min and sup operators to the real part, and averaging over subvarieties. Then any element of this class can be approximated, uniformly in the variables and in the prime p, by a polynomial expression in $\Psi_p(\xi)$ at certain algebraic functions $\xi$ of the variables, where $\Psi$ ($n$ mod $p$) $=$ exp($2\pi i n /p$) is the standard additive character.

## Cite this article

Ehud Hrushovski, Ax’s theorem with an additive character. EMS Surv. Math. Sci. 8 (2021), no. 1/2, pp. 179–216

DOI 10.4171/EMSS/47