# On the eigenvalues of quantum graph Laplacians with large complex $\delta$ couplings

### James B. Kennedy

Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal### Robin Lang

Universität Stuttgart, Germany

## Abstract

We study the location of the spectrum of the Laplacian on compact metric graphs with complex Robin-type vertex conditions, also known as $\delta$ conditions, on some or all of the graph vertices. We classify the eigenvalue asymptotics as the complex Robin parameter(s) diverge to $\infty$ in $\mathbb C$: for each vertex $v$ with a Robin parameter $\alpha \in \mathbb C$ for which Re$\alpha \to -\infty$ sufficiently quickly, there exists exactly one divergent eigenvalue, which behaves like $-\alpha^2/\mathrm {deg} v^2$, while all other eigenvalues stay near the spectrum of the Laplacian with a Dirichlet condition at $v$; if $\mathrm {Re} \alpha$ remains bounded from below, then all eigenvalues stay near the Dirichlet spectrum. Our proof is based on an analysis of the corresponding Dirichlet-to-Neumann matrices (Titchmarsh–Weyl $M$-functions). We also use sharp trace-type inequalities to prove estimates on the numerical range and hence on the spectrum of the operator, which allow us to control both the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues in terms of the real and imaginary parts of the Robin parameter(s).

## Cite this article

James B. Kennedy, Robin Lang, On the eigenvalues of quantum graph Laplacians with large complex $\delta$ couplings. Port. Math. 77 (2020), no. 2, pp. 133–161

DOI 10.4171/PM/2047