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Coxeter polynomials are important homological invariants that are defined for a large class of finite-dimensional algebras. It is of particular interest to develop methods to compute these polynomials. We define the notion of insertion of a poset into a triangular algebra at a vertex of its quiver, and show that its Coxeter polynomial is controlled in a uniform way by two polynomials attached to the poset that we call refined Coxeter polynomials. Several properties of these polynomials are discussed. Applications include new symmetry properties for Coxeter polynomials of ordinal sums of posets, constructions of new algebras of cyclotomic type and interlaced towers of algebras.