# Duplicial algebras, parking functions, and Lagrange inversion

### Jean-Christophe Novelli

Université de Marne-la-Vallée, France### Jean-Yves Thibon

Université de Marne-la-Vallée, France

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## Abstract

We provide operadic interpretations for two Hopf subalgebras of the algebra of parking functions. The Catalan subalgebra is identified with the free duplicial algebra on one generator, and the Schröder subalgebra is interpreted by means of a new operad, which we call triduplicial.

The noncommutative Lagrange inversion formula is then interpreted in terms of duplicial structures. The generic solution of the noncommutative inversion problem appears as the formal sum of all parking functions. This suggests that combinatorial generating functions derived by functional inversion should be obtainable by evaluating a suitable character on this generic solution. This idea is illustrated by means of the Narayana polynomials, of which we obtain bivariate “super-analogues” by lifting to parking functions a classical character of the algebra of symmetric functions. Other characters, such as evaluation of symmetric functions on a binomial element, are also discussed.