# Subproduct systems

### Orr Shalit

### Baruch Solel

## Abstract

The notion of a subproduct system, a generalization of that of a product system, is introduced. We show that there is an essentially 1 to 1 correspondence between $cp$-semigroups and pairs $(X,T)$ where $X$ is a subproduct system and $T$ is an injective subproduct system representation. A similar statement holds for subproduct systems and units of subproduct systems. This correspondence is used as a framework for developing a dilation theory for $cp$-semigroups. Results we obtain: (i) a *-automorphic dilation to semigroups of *-endomorphisms over quite general semigroups; (ii) necessary and sufficient conditions for a semigroup of CP maps to have a *-endomorphic dilation; (iii) an analogue of Parrot's example of three contractions with no isometric dilation, that is, an example of three commuting, contractive normal CP maps on $B(H)$ that admit no *-endomorphic dilation (thereby solving an open problem raised by Bhat in 1998). Special attention is given to subproduct systems over the semigroup $N$, which are used as a framework for studying tuples of operators satisfying homogeneous polynomial relations, and the operator algebras they generate. As applications we obtain a noncommutative (projective) Nullstellensatz, a model for tuples of operators subject to homogeneous polynomial relations, a complete description of all representations of Matsumoto's subshift C^*-algebra when the subshift is of finite type, and a classification of certain operator algebras -- including an interesting non-selfadjoint generalization of the noncommutative tori.

## Cite this article

Orr Shalit, Baruch Solel, Subproduct systems. Doc. Math. 14 (2009), pp. 801–868

DOI 10.4171/DM/290