# The spacetime positive mass theorem in dimensions less than eight

### Michael Eichmair

Universität Wien, Austria### Lan-Hsuan Huang

University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA### Dan A. Lee

CUNY, Queens, USA### Richard Schoen

University of California, Irvine, USA

## Abstract

We prove the spacetime positive mass theorem in dimensions less than eight. This theorem asserts that for any asymptotically flat initial data set that satisfies the dominant energy condition, the inequality $E≥∣P∣$ holds, where $(E,P)$ is the ADM energy-momentum vector. Previously, this theorem was only known for spin manifolds [38]. Our approach is a modification of the minimal hypersurface technique that was used by the last named author and S.-T. Yau to establish the time-symmetric case of this theorem [30, 27]. Instead of minimal hypersurfaces, we use marginally outer trapped hypersurfaces (MOTS) whose existence is guaranteed by earlier work of the first named author [14]. An important part of our proof is to introduce an appropriate substitute for the area functional that is used in the time-symmetric case to single out certain minimal hyper surfaces. We also establish a density theorem of independent interest and use it to reduce the general case of the spacetime positive mass theorem to the special case of initial data that has harmonic asymptotics and satisfies the strict dominant energy condition.

## Cite this article

Michael Eichmair, Lan-Hsuan Huang, Dan A. Lee, Richard Schoen, The spacetime positive mass theorem in dimensions less than eight. J. Eur. Math. Soc. 18 (2016), no. 1, pp. 83–121

DOI 10.4171/JEMS/584